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What Agreements Were Made At The Berlin Conference

Before the conference, European diplomats addressed African governments in the same way as in the Western Hemisphere, linking them to local trade networks. In the early 1800s, European demand for ivory, which was then often used in the manufacture of luxury goods, led many European distributors to Africa`s domestic markets. [5] Europe`s spheres of power and influence were then limited to coastal Africa, with Europeans having until then established only commercial posts. [6] Inevitably, the struggle for territory led to conflicts between European powers, particularly between the British and the French in West Africa; Egypt, the Portuguese and the British in East Africa; and the French king and King Leopold II in the Central African Republic. The rivalry between Great Britain and France led Bismarck to intervene and, at the end of 1884, he convened a meeting of European powers in Berlin. In subsequent meetings, Great Britain, France, Germany, Portugal and King Leopold II negotiated their claims on African territory, which were then formalized and mapped. During the conference, the heads of state and government also agreed to allow free trade between the colonies and to create a framework for negotiating future European demands in Africa. Neither the Berlin conference itself nor the framework of future negotiations gave african peoples a say in the division of their homeland. From 1878 to 1885 Stanley did not return to Congo as a journalist, but as Leopold`s agent, with the secret mission to organize what became a free state of Congo shortly after the berlin conference closed in August 1885. [8] [2] French agents discovered Leopold`s plans and, in response, France sent its own explorers to Africa. In 1881, French naval officer Pierre de Brazza was sent to the Central African Republic, travelled to the western basin of Congo and the French flag was raised over the new city of Brazzaville in present-day Congo Republic. Finally, Portugal, which had essentially abandoned a colonial empire in the region, has long claimed the territory based on ancient treaties with Spain and the Roman Catholic Church, by the largely dissolved Empire of Congo.

On February 2, 1884, with his former ally, Great Britain, a treaty on blocking Congolese society`s access to the Atlantic. In a few years, Africa has been divided, at least in nominal terms, into sub-Saharan Africa. Until 1895, the only independent states were: the conference, proposed by Portugal to promote its particular claim to control the mouth of the Congo, was seen by the jealousy and suspicion with which the great European powers envisaged the attempts of the other to contemplate colonial expansion in Africa. The general act of the Berlin conference declared the Congo River basin neutral (a fact that did not prevent the Allies from extending the war to this territory during the First World War); guaranteed freedom for trade and navigation for all states in the watershed; to ban the slave trade; and rejected Portugal`s claims on the mouth of the Congo River, thus allowing the creation of the independent free state of Congo, which Britain, France and Germany had already accepted in principle. Explain why Europeans were interested in preserving land in Africa The Republics of Burma were conquered by the British during the Second Bosheme War from 1899 to 1902. Morocco was divided between French and Spanish in 1911, and Libya was conquered by Italy in 1912. List of some of the most important agreements of the general act of the conference Diplomats in Berlin have defined the rules of competition that should guide the great powers in the search for colonies. No nation should assert claims in Africa without warning other powers of their intentions.